Transport in Humans Notes Chapter 8

on Tuesday, December 23, 2008

Transport in Humans notes

1. What is the purpose of a circulatory system?
• To transport _________________and ________________________.
• To remove _________________products.

2. Simple Unicellular Organisms
• Do not need a circulatory system as all of their constituents are very ____________ to the plasma membrane. Oxygen and other vital nutrients can reach each part of these organisms by simple _________________or _______________ransport. Similarly, waste materials can also diffuse out of the organism.

3. Complex Multicellular Organisms
• Require an elaborate transport system to supply all tissues and muscles with nutrients and transport waste materials away from the tissues and muscles.
• Cells are situated deep in the body, ________________from the external environment
• Simple diffusion is too _______________ for efficient exchange of materials.

In mammals:
Transport system = _____________ system + _________________system

4. Features of the circulatory system
• Blood
• Blood vessels
• Heart

• Is a __________________ fluid
• An average human has 5.5 litres of blood
• Comprises of 55% plasma, 44% blood cells + white blood cells and 1%platelets


• Pale yellow _________________
• Composed mainly of water (90%)
• _________________proteins (fibrinogen, albumin,globulin, prothrombin, antibodies)
• _________________ products (urea, uric acid and creatinine, bicarbonates)
• ________________ (insulin)
• _______________substances (glucose, amino acids, fats and vitamins)
• Dissolved ________________ salts (chlorides, sulphates and phosphates of calcium, potassium and sodium, hydrogencarbonates

Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes)

• Circular , ________________, flattened disc
• No nucleus
• Diameter < 0.01mm
• Elastic --> so it can squeeze through the capillaries
• 1 mm3 = _______ million RBCs
• Produced in the bone _______________
• Can live for 3 to 4 _________________
• Destroyed in the ______________ and the liver
• Contain ___________________
• Haemoglobin = special protein containing iron
• Allows RBCs to transport oxygen effectively
2. White Blood Cells

• Colourless
• No haemoglobin
• Larger than RBCs
• ______________ in number
• 1mm3= 5000 to 10000
• Irregular in shape
• Contains ____________________
• Can move
• Can change its shape and squeeze through the walls of the capillaries
• keep the body healthy by fighting diseases.
• normal life span is a FEW _______________

2 main kinds:-
• Produced in bone marrow and mature in the _______________ nodes
• Has a large, ____________________ nucleus
• Small amount of non- granular cytoplasm
• Show limited movements
• Produce _______________________

• Produced by the bone marrow
• ___________________ foreign particles like bacteria
• Lobed nucleus and ________________ cytoplasm
• Consists of monocytes and polymorphs
Blood Platelets
(Thrombocytes • Not true cells
• _____________________-bound fragments of cytoplasm from bone marrow cells
• Helps in ______________________ of blood

6. Blood Groups
Red blood cells contain:

a) ________________ (surface proteins) and b) ____________________(always present in the blood)
• Antibodies react only other antigens

Agglutination-clumping of blood

Blood group Antigen on RBC Antibody in serum
A Antigen A Antibody _______
B Antigen ________ Antibody a
AB Antigen A and B ________Antibodies
O _______ Antigen Antibodies a and b

Recipient’s Blood group Antibody in recipient’s plasma Donor’s blood group
A a
B b
AB -
O a and b

Transport function of Blood Protective Functions of Blood
Acts as a________________ medium carrying substances from one part of the body to another.
§ ___________________ food from the intestines to all parts of the body
§ Excretory products to the _______________ organs for removal
§ ______________ from glands
§ ____________from respiring body tissues
§ ______________from lungs diffuses to blood capillaries
§ Haemoglobin has great affinity for oxygen, combine to form _______________________
§ Oxygen diffuses in solution into tissue cells _________________ the body against disease-causing organisms (pathogens)
• ___________________- engulfing and ingesting foreign particles like bacteria by the white blood cells
• Production of ______________by the lymphocytes
• Clotting of blood by platelets and enzymes

7. Clotting of Blood
• When blood vessels are damaged, damaged tissues and blood platelets release an enzyme known as _____________________________
• Thrombokinase converts the protein ______________________ normally present in the plasma, into thrombin. _____________________ions must be present before this can take place.
• Thrombin is also an enzyme. It catalyses the conversion of the soluble protein _______________________to insoluble threads of fibrin.
• Fibrin threads entangle blood cells and the whole mass forms a ___________.

• An anti-clotting agent in undamaged blood vessels
• Produced in the liver
• Neutralised by thrombokinase during bleeding
Immune system
• Immune system=white blood cells + antibodies
• It helps the body to fight diseases by causing an immune response to foreign particles


1. Arteries
• Blood vessels that carry blood ___________________ from the heart
• Receive blood directly from the heart
• Walls are thick, _______________________. and elastic
• Thick elastic wall helps to maintain _____________blood pressure
• Elasticity permits stretching and recoiling of the artery wall.
• Helps to push the blood along (pulse).
• Carry mainly___________________________ blood

2. Veins
• Blood pressure is ________________
• Blood flows more ____________________and smoothly
• Veins are not as thick and muscular as arteries
• Contain less elastic tissue
• Have internal ___________________

3. Capillaries
• Network of microscopic vessels linking an artery and a vein.
• _________________ cell thick
• Take nutrients, oxygen and other useful substances to the cells and remove waste products produced by in these cells.
• _____________________ is selectively permeable
• Enable some substance to diffuse quickly
• Easy for diffusion of materials
• Blood flows smoothly
• No__________________ present.


4. Double Circulation
• Blood passes through the heart__________________ in one complete circuit
• 2 circulations:-
a. _________________________ circulation
b. _________________________circulation

Pulmonary circulation
• Pulmonary arteries carry _________________________ blood to the lungs
• Pulmonary veins carry ________________________blood to the heart

Systemic circulation
• Oxygenated blood leaves the heart through _______________ to all parts of the body
• ______________________ carry deoxygenated blood from all parts of the body to the heart.

Advantages of double circulation
• Blood entering the lungs is at a ______________ pressure. Ensures that blood is well oxygenated before it leaves.
• Blood leaving the heart for the systemic circulation is at a ________ pressure.
• Ensures that oxygenated blood is distributed at a ________________ rate.



1. The Heart
• _______________________-two layered membrane
• Filled with ________________ to reduce friction
• 4 chambers- auricles and ventricles
• Medium _________________- separate right and left side

Path of blood in the heart
• Anterior or superior vena cava returns _____________________blood from head, neck & arms
• Posterior or inferior vena cava returns deoxygenated blood from ______________________ parts of the body
• Right ____________________contracts
• Chordae tendineae pulls the flaps _____________________.
• ______________________ valve opens
• Right auricle has _____________________ pressure than right ventricle
• Blood enters right ventricle
• Right ventricle contracts
• Tricuspid valves ______________________
• Blood leaves through ___________________ arch which branches into left and right arteries
• Semi-lunar valves prevent ______________________of blood
• Oxygenated blood from the lungs return to heart by _________________ veins
• Left atrium contracts
• ____________________ or mitral valves open
• Blood enters left ventricle.
• Left ventricle contracts.
• Blood leaves the _____________ arch to all parts of the body
• Semi-lunar valves prevent backflow of blood to left ventricle

• ______________ (ventricular contraction)>>”lub”
• ______________ (ventricular relaxation)>>”dub”

1 Heartbeat = 1 systole + 1 diastole

The pulse
• Sudden increase in pressure causes the arteries to dilate.
• After dilation, walls of the arteries recoil.
• This will make _________________.

Blood pressure

• ____________________ of the blood exerted on the walls of the blood vessels
• Highest in ______________________
• Measured by _________________________________

Main blood vessels of the body

Lymph and the Lymphatic System
• Lymph is formed from _______________.
• Water and plasma (tissue fluid) are forced from the capillaries into ____________________________________ spaces
• Most of the tissue fluid is collected as lymph into lymphatic vessels which return it to the _______________________.

Coronary Heart Disease
• Coronary arteries are _______________________ or narrowed
• Angina and __________________ attack
• The part of the heart does not receive sufficient oxygen and nutrients
• The heart muscle _______________

Causes of coronary heart disease
• _____________________________- cholesterol and polysturated fats deposited on the inner surface
• Narrow lumen, increases blood pressure

• ____________________________ blood clot in the arteries


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