Chapter 10 Respiration Notes

on Friday, December 26, 2008

1.  Why do living organisms respire?

      Need __________ to move, excrete, grow, reproduce and maintain themselves.

      Food contains ___________________ energy.

      Respiration is the ____________________ of this energy when food (glucose) is broken down in living cell.


2.  Respiration is the _____________________ of food substances with the release of _______________________ in living cells.


3.  Define Aerobic respiration: The oxidation of food substances in the presence of ______________________with the release of a large amount of energy. ____________________________  and water are released as waste products.

Rounded Rectangle: Equation in words:    Equation in symbols: 












4.    What is the energy used for?

  1. _______________ division and growth
  2. Synthesis of _____________________, fats and vitamins
  3. Transmission of nerve ________________________
  4. Maintenance of a constant ______________________ temperature
  5. _______________________ transport in the absorption of food substances by the small intestine
  6. _____________________contractions e.g. heartbeat & respiratory movements.


5.    Anaerobic respiration:  It is the breakdown of glucose in the________________ of oxygen to release energy.

      Can take place in yeast as well as the muscles





      Respires anaerobically when oxygen is absent.

      Little energy is released.

      Yeast cannot be very active under such situations.

E.g.     Alcoholic fermentation





      Muscle cells normally respire aerobically.

      Carry out anaerobic respiration when there is a shortage of oxygen.



Equation in words:



C6H12O6 ---- 2CH3CH(OH)COOH + 150 kJ



6.  Differences:

Aerobic Respiration


Anaerobic Respiration


      Uses ____________________

      No alcohol or __________ acid made

      _________amount of energy released

      ________________always released

      Do not use oxygen

      Alcohol or lactic acid made

      Small amount of energy released

       CO2 sometimes released



7.  What happens during vigorous exercise?

·         During vigorous muscular contraction , muscles first use ___________________ to respire. (aerobic)

·          __________________________ occurs to remove carbon dioxide and take in more oxygen.

      Heart beats _____________so that more oxygen can be brought to the muscles.

      There is a LIMIT to the rate of breathing and heartbeat. They CANNOT keep on increasing.

      To continue vigorous exercise, more energy needs to be released.

      Muscle cells carry out _________________________________ respiration.

      __________________acid is produced.

      Lactic acid slowly builds up in the __________________________.

      Muscle has an “OXYGEN _______________________”.

      Lactic acid cause ____________________________

      Body needs to rest & recover

      Muscular pain is due to the lactic acid.

      Lactic acid slowly builds up in the muscles.

      Muscle has an “OXYGEN DEBT”.

What happens during RESTING?

      Lactic acid is removed from the muscles and transported to the liver.

      Some of the lactic acid is oxidized to ___________________________.

      Converts remaining lactic acid into glucose

 .   How do we know organisms respire?

  1. To find out whether carbon dioxide is given off during respiration
  2. To find out if carbon dioxide is given off during fermentation
  3. To find out if heat is released during respiration


9.   Gaseous exchange

      Process of the transfer of oxygen from the air to the cells and the transfer of carbon dioxide and water from the cells back to the surroundings.

 The Nose

      Air enters through two external nostrils (nares)

      Nasal passages lined with ______________and moist mucous membrane

      Trap dust & foreign particles, including _________________________.

      Air is warmed and moistened;

      Detect harmful chemicals (by sensory cells).

 The Trachea

      lies in front of esophagus

      supported by C-shaped rings of _______________________(which ensure it is always kept opened)

      Epithelium has gland cells to secrete mucus which traps dust particles

      bears ________________to sweep dust particles upwards into pharynx

The Lungs

      Each lung lies in the pleural cavity.

      The pleural cavity is lined by 2 transparent pleural ______________________

      Inner pleuron covers the lungs

      Outer pleuron in contact with thoracic wall and diaphragm

      The pleural fluid helps to reduce friction on the lungs when they rub against the rib cage during inspiration.

      The lower end of the trachea divides into 2 bronchi (singular: bronchus), one to each lung.

      Within the lungs, the bronchial tubes divide into smaller tubes – the bronchioles (*NO cartilage).

      Each bronchiole ends with many air sacs called _______________________

       lower end of the trachea divides into 2 bronchi (singular: bronchus), one to each lung.

      Within the lungs, the bronchial tubes divide into smaller tubes – the bronchioles (*NO cartilage).

      Each bronchiole ends with many air sacs called alveoli.

 Adaptations of lungs for efficient gaseous exchange

      Alveoli provide a  large ________________________area

      The wall of alveolus is very thin. Only_____________ cell thick. Allows easy diffusion of O2 & CO2.

      A thin film of moisture covers the surface of the alveolus. O2 dissolves in this liquid before diffusing across the wall of the alveolus.

      The walls of the alveoli are richly supplied with blood capillaries. The flow of blood maintains the concentration gradient of gases


12.  The Chest cavity

      Chest wall is supported by ribs

      Two sets of intercostal muscles (internal and external) control the movement of the ribs

      The diaphragm separates the thorax from the abdomen

      The intercostal muscles and the diaphragm contract and relax,  causing the volume of thoracic cavity to change


13.  Mechanism of Breathing



Your diaphragm ______________ and flattens

Your diaphragm________________ and arches upwards.

Your external intercostal muscles _______________while your internal intercostal muscles relax.

Your internal intercostal muscles contract while your external intercostal muscles _____________________.

Your ribs move ________________and outwards. Your sternum also moves up and forward.

Your ribs move________________ and inwards. Your sternum also moves down to its original position.

The volume of your thoracic cavity ___________________

The volume of your thoracic cavity


Air pressure in your lungs causes them to. expand to fill up the enlarged space in your thorax. Expansion of your lungs causes the air pressure inside them to_____________________.


Your lungs are compressed and air pressure inside them __________________as the volume decreases.


Atmospheric pressure is now ____________________than the pressure within your lungs. This causes air to rush into your lungs.


Air pressure within the lungs is now higher than atmospheric pressure. The air is _____________________out of your lungs to the exterior.



                    RICE                    ERIC





       Alveolar air contains _________________________ concentration of oxygen than the blood.

      Oxygen dissolves in the moisture lining and ____________________into the blood capillaries.

      Oxygen combines with haemoglobin to form _______________________________.

      Tissue cells produce carbon dioxide during aerobic respiration.

      Carbon dioxide diffuses into the blood and enters red blood cells.

      Carbon dioxide reacts with water to form carbonic acid catalysed by carbonic_________________________.

      Carbonic acid converted into ________________________ions which diffuse out of the red blood cells into the plasma.


      Hydrogencarbonate ions diffuse back into the red blood cells

      Converted into carbonic acid and then into water and carbon dioxide


      Carbon dioxide diffuses out of blood capillaries into the alveoli and out of the lungs

15. Effects of Tobacco Smoke on Human Health


Chemicals in tobacco smoke

Effects on the body


Addictive drug

Heart disease

      Nicotine stimulates release of _________________

      Increases blood pressure and heart rate

      Increases chance of blood____________ and plaque deposit on the walls of coronary arteries

      Heart attacks and death


     Reduces the efficiency of oxygen transport in red blood cells

     Increases rate of deposition of fatty substances in arteries and damages the lining of blood vessels


Lung cancer

      Carcinogenic compound, benzopyrene causes cancer cells to be produced

      Blockage of air sacs and reduction in gas exchange  efficiency

      Shortness of breath

      Coughing up of mucus and blood

  • Paralyses cilia lining the air passages



      Paralyses cilia lining of  air passages

      Dust and harmful chemicals are able to move past the bronchi and invade the alveoli

      Air passages become irritated and clogged with mucus and dust

      Lots of phlegm and coughing


      Violent coughing breaks partition walls between air sacs

      Alveolar sacs may become less elastic

      ________________surface area for gaseous exchange

       Lungs become inflated with air

      Difficulty in breathing, wheezing



Smoking during Pregnancy

      Mother’s blood contains carbon monoxide and ____________________

      Restricts blood vessels reducing amount of nutrients and ___________to baby

      ________________ birth weight of baby

      Prone to illness

      Increase potential for birth defects and abnormalities

      Increased chances of a miscarriage

      Increased chances of a premature birth

      Has a greater risk of baby being born dead


Kira Yamato said...

A Level Biology's Respiration is much more complicated than this.... Sigh...

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